CBD oil with the active ingredient cannabidiol from the hemp plant is believed to relax and relieve pain. What are the effects of CBD oils, can consumption of them cause dangerous side effects, and what complaints can CBD products be helpful for?
In addition to using cannabis as a medicine, hemp’s active ingredients are also used in medicines and nutritional supplements, including CBD oil. But product use and quality is controversial. What is the truth about bloated oils with the active ingredient cannabidiol, can they have an intoxicating effect, and what are the differences from medicated CBD oil, which is only available by prescription?
CBD stands for Cannabidiol, a phytocannabinoid of the female hemp plant (Cannabis Sativa L), which is mainly present in the plant as an acid. Hemp is made up of over 100 different phytocannabinoids, the most famous of which are THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD.
THC is a psychoactive, intoxicating ingredient. CBD, on the other hand, does not have a strong stimulatory effect. But cannabidiol also crosses the blood-brain barrier, binds to the same receptors as THC, and can influence perception and behavior.
The cannabidiol oil is derived from the flowers and leaves of hemp plants that are low in THC and high in CBD. CBD supplements are usually based on edible oil (such as sesame oil or hemp seed oil, which, incidentally, does not contain cannabidiol). For example, CBD oil products have cannabidiol concentrations of 2.5 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, or 20 percent. By the way, every CBD oil also contains a certain amount of THC, but it shouldn’t exceed 0.2 percent.
The legal situation regarding over-the-counter CBD oil products is unclear. Cannabinoids have been added to the EU’s 2019 new food catalog. The catalog lists food items that were not consumed by humans during any serious accident in the EU before May 15, 1997. Cannabidiol products are officially considered new foodstuffs whose consumption must first be assessed in terms of their health effects in order to be marketed.
In the case of cannabinoids, the entry was provided with the addition that products with the active ingredient CBD are always considered new products if the cannabinoids have been specially fortified or their concentration in the product has been reduced, i.e. when working with isolated extracts.
As a result of the new food announcement, CBD products disappeared from pharmacy shelves, and police confiscated numerous products from fixed outlets such as hemp stores. The ban on the sale of CBD supplements was also issued in two urgent administrative proceedings in 2019.
The sale of cannabis extracts with cannabinoids is a criminal offense under the provisions of the New Foods Regulation. Manufacturers of CBD products should, in theory, test their safety for human consumption. Due to the huge costs of such a procedure and the legal gray area, CBD oils are mostly sold online – sometimes without accurate product information.
Not all CBD oils are created equal. An important distinction should be made between CBD oil as a prescription drug and CBD oil as a dietary supplement.
The differences start with the manufacturing process. The original plant is the same in both cases, but growing it to obtain CBD oil as a medicine is subject to strictly controlled conditions. This ensures control over the quality and concentration of ingredients. Daily doses of medicated CBD oil are also 100 times different from daily doses of CBD oil available without a prescription.
CBD oil is available as a dietary supplement from numerous manufacturers online (from Traumtropfen, for example), organic and hemp stores, and pharmacies for people aged 18 and over. When using over-the-counter CBD oils, product quality, ingredients, and concentrations fluctuate because supplement products are not as strictly controlled as medicines. Information is often lacking on the exact composition of the cannabinoid profile and consumption recommendations. If ingredients and their concentrations are specified, they often do not match the ingredients in the product.
Also, without monitoring, the presence of undesirable substances in them, for example, pesticides, cannot be definitely excluded. There are independent quality seals to guarantee oil quality. However, manufacturers are not required to carry out such quality control and incur high costs themselves.
Research is providing early indications that cannabidiol, especially in the case of high doses of medicated CBD oil, may have a positive effect on numerous ailments that can occur with a variety of medical conditions, including:
Overall, the effects of cannabidiol and its long-term health effects are not well understood. The action of cannabidiol in the human body is based on the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is jointly responsible for the normal functioning of many body functions and regulates the action of the body’s own intermediary substances. He himself produces endocannabinoids in almost all tissues of the body, which bind to various cannabinoid receptors and regulate important metabolic processes.
When endocannabinoids activate cannabinoid 1 receptors, for example, signaling in the brain is brought into balance. Among other things, it protects against overstrain of the central nervous system.
Cannabinoid-2 receptors primarily serve important functions for the immune system.
Due to similar structures, cannabinoids from the hemp plant can also bind to these receptors and have a suppressive or activating effect on signaling. Initial research results indicate that cannabidiol:
Various studies have also examined the effects of cannabidiol while taking THC. The results indicate that cannabidiol can suppress the intoxicating effects of THC at low doses, while it can potentiate it at very high doses.
When taken orally, the onset of action can be expected in about twenty minutes to two hours. Body weight and food consumed at the same time also play a role. It can take up to five days for the body to completely break down CBD.
In general, both CBD oil as a dietary supplement and oil are well tolerated.
This year, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned that cannabidiol can cause harm – even before consumers even notice it. The subject of research was the drug Epidiolex, which is also approved in Europe and is used in severe, therapy-resistant forms of epilepsy. The authorities warn of the following risks at high doses:
a) Liver damage.
b) Increased risk of sedation with alcohol and other drugs that affect the central nervous system.
c) Effects on the metabolism of other drugs with serious side effects
e) Decreased appetite.
f) Anxiety and irritability.
CBD oil should always be taken according to the dosage instructions, which differ depending on the product. The active ingredient is best absorbed through the oral mucosa. The drops can be placed directly under the tongue and held there for a minute or two before swallowing.
Besides CBD oil in drop form, there are also CBD capsules to swallow. The benefit of CBD capsules for many users is the dosage form. However, one of the disadvantages is that cannabidiol is better and faster absorbed by the oral mucosa than by the stomach. A full stomach also slows down absorption.
The daily dosages quoted for CBD oils and other cannabidiol hemp products should never be exceeded without a medical clarification, as interactions with other substances are possible and each reacts differently to the active substances THC and cannabidiol.
Experts advise buying only certified CBD oils. Even though they are usually more expensive. Consumers should definitely refrain from using CBD oils that do not contain any ingredients or dosage recommendations.